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Putování po historických městech Čech, Moravy a Slezska

The park is protected by the state. It was created in 1820 - 1830 by Earl Petr Marcolini - Feretti. The park area originally contained a pond named "Na Martinově popluží" and fields. The pond filled with earth and the terrain landscaped into a mound. The attained land was used to create an English-style, free landscape park. The park contains a large quantity of rare plants and timber species. Inside the upper left-hand corner of the park walls is an open empire pavilion as a place of rest, whilst the upper-right hand corner contains a grotto with a viewing point. An orangery was constructed in the lower section of the park, in which tropical plants, cactuses and bonsai were grown. The oldest bonsai in Europe was stored here, which after the liquidation of the orangery (1948) was transferred to the botanical gardens in Liberec. The fountain with the nymph from 1837 was relocated to the park from the town square, where it originally stood.
 
From the history of the park

When Earl Hynek Vitanovský of Vlčkovice bought the Kyšperk estate in 1650, he had the original fortress rebuilt into an early baroque chateau during his reign, and close by built a chateau chapel, now the church of St. Wenceslas. During this period the chateau terrace with a view of the lands beneath the town was also established, onto which the nobility descended directly from the chateau on a double-armed staircase, furnished with a pillared balustrade. The park, which today spreads out behind the chateau up to the hill did not yet exist at this time. Immediately behind the chateau, on the area today occupied by Vitanovského street, was the “Na Martinově popluží” pond, behind which were fields which belonged to the Kyšperk serfs. The authorities later exchanged these lands with them. 

The baroque chapel of St. John of Nepomuk, on a pentagonal ground plan, which towers above the park, connected by a tree-lined alley, was constructed under the reign of the Bredas in 1734 – 1736.

   The natural landscape park was established by Earl Petr Marcolini – Feretti in the years 1820 – 1830. This Saxon noble married into the Kyšperk estate through his marriage to countess Marie Anna Cavriani in 1794. During his reign the town underwent several fundamental changes. Following the devastating fire of 1824 almost the entire town square was rebuilt, from bricks and marl. The houses on the northern and southern side were given colonnades. The Earl was also the first to commence the construction of new roads and reconstruction of older ones. Thanks to him the original sleigh on which the emperor Napoleon Bonaparte fled from Russia in 18182 came to the town. He stopped in Dresden on his way and stayed with the Saxon state and chamber minister Camillo Marcolini – Feretti, the father of Petr. From Dresden Napoleon continued on a new sleigh and left the original behind. Petr then had the sleigh brought to Kyšperk.

   Originally the garden was composed of three land plots, on which a vegetable and flower garden were also situated (later horticulture). When Petr died his daughter married as Nimptschová, shared in the completion of the park. 


   During the period of romanticism an empire gloriet and grotto with viewing point were established in the park. The length of the corridor which was driven into the sandstone rock is approximately 25 m. The roof of the grotto is lined with bricks. At the end are three windows, providing a view over the landscape. They originally contained multicoloured glass, which was intended to further enhance the beauty of the surrounding natural landscape. Above the grotto is a viewing point with a metal railing and benches. Above the entrance to the grotto, which is closed by a grate, is a statue of an angel, from which the head has broken off. In the centre of the park was a skittle alley, which was abundantly visited in summer. During this period magnolia was also planted in the chateau courtyard in the spirit of the times, but did not correspond with its environment.


 An orangery was constructed on the edge of the park, which amongst other factors housed the oldest bonsai in Europe.

Two statutes stood on Wenceslas Square. The lower fountain was threatened with demolition, and so in 1937 it was removed and reconstructed in the park opposite the entrance from the square, on the edge of the central field. This relocation was later criticised widely as illogical and inappropriate.

In 1941 the park was devastated by a hurricane, in which most of the trees were uprooted. In the 1950s the town was engaged in regular maintenance of the park. It was not until 1966 that the then Municipal National Council issued the processing of the project for renovation of the park in “Garden architecture Hradec Králové”. The project was headed by Ladislav Zeman. His work comprised three parts – review of the existing condition, renovation plan and text section. In future years this material became the source for a range of further works. At the time Ladislav Zeman was the first to draw attention to the unfortunate reconstruction of the orangery into the Petr Jilemnický clubhouse, and proposed the scrapping of the tennis courts and children’s playground in the central area of the park. However his project was not used. 


   Work was not resumed until 1981 – 87, and several adjustments were performed, including the removal of loose timber species, adjustments of paths and walkways, paving and refurbishment of the horticulture section, repair of the grotto and gloriet and laying of new turf on the chateau terrace. The children’s playground was also scrapped.

In the first half of the 1990s an extensive project was processed, containing the most detailed study of the plant composition “Garden and landscape architecture in Průhonice”. The authors of the project were Ing. Drahoslav Šonský CSc., Prof. Ing. Jaroslav Machovec, CSc. and Ing. Jan Machovec.
  
Kulturní centrum Letohrad

Václavské nám. 77

561 51 Letohrad

IČO: 70964891

tel.: 465 622 092

e-maily: info@letohrad.eu, muzeum@letohrad.eu, kultura@letohrad.eu, knihovna@letohrad.cz


Ředitel:
Jaroslav Moravec
tel.: 465 622 255
e-mail: jaroslav.moravec@letohrad.eu

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